Excavation in construction is any operation in which earth, rock, or other material in or on the ground is moved or otherwise displaced by means of tools, equipment, or explosives, and includes earthwork, trenching, wall shafts, tunnelling and underground. Excavation is the process of moving earth, rock or other materials with tools, equipment or explosives. It includes earthwork, trenching, wall shafts, tunneling and underground. Excavation has a number of important applications including exploration, environmental restoration, mining and construction. Much of earthworks involve machine excavation and fill or backfill.Heavy construction equipment is usually used due to the amounts of material to be moved
More importantly it significantly reduces the amount of large pore space, restricting air and water movement. Soil compaction is the reduction of soil volume due to external factors; this reduction lowers soil productivity and environmental quality. Soil compaction is the physical consoli- dation of the soil by an applied force that destroys structure, reduces porosity, limits water and air infiltration, increases.